Application of Freehand 3D Ultrasound Guidance in Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistula Stenosis


  • Guojun Ge Department of Nephrology, The 903 RD Hospital of PLA, 310009 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • Xiaofeng Zhu Department of Nephrology, The 903 RD Hospital of PLA, 310009 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • Keqing Zhu Department of Nephrology, The 903 RD Hospital of PLA, 310009 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • Qiang He Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, 310001 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • Hongjiang Lu Department of Nephrology, The 903 RD Hospital of PLA, 310009 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • Bo Lin Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, 310003 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • Bocheng zhu Department of Nephrology, The 903 RD Hospital of PLA, 310009 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China



freehand 3D ultrasound imaging, Doppler ultrasound, autogenous arteriovenous fistula, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, hemodialysis, stenosis, patency rate


Objective: Using freehand three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging to evaluate arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Comparing the value of freehand 3D ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound in the application of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) treatment for stenosis of an arteriovenous fistula. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 34 patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis who were treated at the 903RD Hospital of PLA and the Kidney Center of Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from August 2021 to August 2022. Based on the different types of surgical assistance, the patients were divided into two groups: the Doppler ultrasound group (Group A, n = 17) and the freehand 3D ultrasound imaging group (Group B, n = 17). Freehand 3D ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound were used to assess the narrowing of arteriovenous fistulas, and images and relevant data were collected before and after the PTA procedure. The differences in the time of puncture and sheath placement, guidewire insertion time, the duration of the procedure, complications, and methods to measure stenosis were compared between the two groups of patients, as well as the technical success rate, the initial patency rate, and the primary patency rates at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgery. This study discusses the clinical efficacy of using these two types of ultrasound to assist in the PTA treatment of arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Results: The differences in baseline demographics between the conventional ultrasound group (Group A) and the 3D ultrasound group (Group B) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The intraoperative guidewire insertion time (4.647 ± 1.347 min vs. 2.824 ± 0.326 min) and the operating times (75.941 ± 7.557 min vs. 59.824 ± 8.175 min) between the two groups were statistically significant (t = 2.788, 3.069, p < 0.01). The technical success rates for the two groups were 94.1% vs. 100%, not statistically significant (t = 1.03, p = 0.31). The first-time patency rates were 88.2% vs. 94.1%, with no statistically significant difference (t = 0.366, p = 0.545). No complications occurred in Group A, while one case of hematoma occurred postoperatively in Group B, with an incidence of 5.9% (1/17), which was not statistically significant (t = 1.03, p > 0.05). Comparing the primary patency rates at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgery between Groups A and B, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). However, the patency rates at different time points for Group B were consistently higher than Group A (94.1%, 82.4%, 82.4%, 82.4% vs. 88.2%, 82.4%, 76.5%, 76.5%). Conclusion: Freehand 3D ultrasound imaging can provide more intuitive, high-resolution, and high-definition three-dimensional images, clearly defining the lesion site and vascular structures. Its accuracy in assessing complications of arteriovenous fistulas is similar to that with conventional ultrasound. When used as an adjunct to PTA treatment, its efficacy is equivalent. It can significantly reduce guidewire insertion time and operation time, decrease postoperative recovery time, and alleviate the patients' concerns regarding surgical risks. It can be considered a new method for diagnosing, treating, and patients with AVF stenosis.


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How to Cite

Ge, G., Zhu, X., Zhu, K. ., He, Q. ., Lu, H. ., Lin, B. ., & zhu, B. (2024). Application of Freehand 3D Ultrasound Guidance in Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistula Stenosis. The Heart Surgery Forum, 27(3), E230-E239.