Midterm Results of Beating Heart Surgery in 1-Vessel Disease: Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass versus Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass with Full Sternotomy


  • Calin Vicol
  • Georg Nollert
  • Helmut Mair
  • Vicky Samuel
  • Che Lim
  • Michael Tiftikidis
  • Sandra Eifert
  • Bruno Reichart




Background: Off-pump cardiac surgery is becoming an established method of surgical revascularization. However, performing anastomoses on a beating heart can be challenging, especially through small incisions. We compared our midterm results in patients with 1 vessel disease using full sternotomy (OPCAB) or a left anterior minithoracotomy (MIDCAB).

Methods: At our institution between December 1996 and December 1998, 102 patients (OPCAB, n = 45, MIDCAB, n = 57); age, 61 ± 11 years; 69% men with 1-vessel disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) underwent off-pump myocardial revascularization through the left internal thoracic artery (LITA). In the OPCAB group 17 (37.8%) of the patients received an additional vein graft to a diagonal branch. OPCAB was generally preferred in obese or high-risk patients or patients with a long LITA-LAD distance ( > 7 cm) on an electron beam computed tomography of the chest.

Results: Operative mortality was 0. Time of surgery (169 ± 48 versus 197 ± 45 minutes) and coronary artery occlusion time (19 ± 7 versus 23 ± 6 minutes) were significantly lower (P = .004 and P = .009) in the OPCAB group. MIDCAB surgery was related to a higher incidence of occluded (4 versus 0; P = .039) or stenosed (7 versus 2; P = .06) anastomoses and necessity for immediate reintervention (9 versus 0; P = .023). During a mean follow-up period of 5.2 years, MIDCAB patients (6 MIDCAB patients versus 1 OPCAB patient) tended to need more coronary interventions and develop more recurrent angina (23 MIDCAB versus 12 OPCAB patients). Two OPCAB patients died during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: Our initial experience in beating heart surgery demonstrated that MIDCAB is technically more challenging than OPCAB. MIDCAB procedures should


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How to Cite

Vicol, C., Nollert, G., Mair, H., Samuel, V., Lim, C., Tiftikidis, M., Eifert, S., & Reichart, B. (2005). Midterm Results of Beating Heart Surgery in 1-Vessel Disease: Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass versus Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass with Full Sternotomy. The Heart Surgery Forum, 6(5), 341-344. https://doi.org/10.1532/hsf.958