Quantification of Mechanical Stabilization for the Performance of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Surgery


  • Mark L. Koransky
  • M. Lance Tavana
  • Atsushi Yamaguchi
  • Murray H. Kown
  • Douglas N. Miniati
  • William Nowlin
  • Robert C. Robbins




Introduction: Our objective was to analyze the motion of a coronary artery in 3-dimensional (3-D) space and to quantify the stabilization afforded by a mechanical arm using 3-D digital sonomicrometry.

Methods: The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was exposed in swine (n = 7) via sternotomy. A 2-mm sonomicrometry crystal was sutured to the LAD, and an acrylic (Plexiglas) ring with 3 2-mm crystals fixed in an equilateral triangle was placed in the oblique pericardial sinus. Sonomicrometry measurements were obtained before and 10 minutes after placement of a stabilizing arm. Traces were analyzed for motion and velocity on a beat-to-beat basis in the x, y, and z planes by means of triangulation theory. Excursion was defined as the average maximum observed distance between LAD Cartesian positions p(k) = [px(k),py(k),pz(k)] over a beat such that the Excursion = max(j,k in beat) sqrt {[px(j) - px(k)]2 + [py(j) - py(k)]2 + [pz(j) - pz(k)]2}. The maximum and the average of the Cartesian velocity magnitude, v = sqrt[vx(2) + vy(2) + vz(2)], were also calculated.

Results: Analysis of the LAD motion in planar space demonstrated a biphasic pattern in all 3 planes that appeared to be stable through the duration of the data acquisition period. The stabilizer dampened the motion of the LAD to a monophasic pattern and reduced the total distance traveled by the LAD crystal in all 3 planes. Stabilization resulted in a significant reduction of excursion, the maximum Cartesian velocity, and the average Cartesian velocity of the LAD.

Conclusions: This method allows the precise quantification of LAD artery motion in 3-D space before and after the application of a stabilizing arm. We have demonstrated a significant reduction in the complexity of motion, the degree of motion in planar space, and the velocity of the LAD after application of a stabilizer. Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA


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How to Cite

Koransky, M. L., Tavana, M. L., Yamaguchi, A., Kown, M. H., Miniati, D. N., Nowlin, W., & Robbins, R. C. (2005). Quantification of Mechanical Stabilization for the Performance of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Surgery. The Heart Surgery Forum, 6(4), 224-231. https://doi.org/10.1532/hsf.934




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