Surgical Coronary Revascularization with or without Mitral Valve Repair of Severe Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Background: Because patients with dilated cardiomyopathy tend to have a poor prognosis with medical therapy, surgery with coronary bypass alone or associated with mitral valve repair should be a promising feasible therapeutic option. We evaluated the early effects of surgical coronary revascularization with or without mitral valve repair in patients with severe dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Methods: The study group consisted of 38 patients aged 65 ± 8 years with severe dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy, chest pain, and heart failure. Twenty-four patients were in a New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ³ 3, and 14 patients were in class 2. Twenty patients had a degree of mitral regurgitation defined as an effective regurgitant orifice
20 mm2. The mean values ( SD) of the EuroSCORE, which evaluates operative risk, were 5 ± 2.2. Clinical and echocardiographic reevaluation followed at 6 months.
Results: All patients underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with a mean of 2.3 ± 0.8 grafts, and mitral valve repair with annuloplasty and Cosgrove ring insertion were performed in 20 patients. No deaths occurred during the operative period. Ten patients could not be reevaluated at 6 months, and 3 patients died (7.9% mortality). At 6 months, the end-systolic volumes in 15 patients who underwent coronary bypass plus mitral valve repair (group A) and in 13 patients who underwent coronary bypass alone (group B) decreased, respectively, from 139 ± 56 mL to 121 ± 94 mL and from 122 ± 48 mL to 96 ± 36 mL (P < .05). The wall motion score index also decreased from 1.9 ± 0.3 to 1.4 ± 0.4 and from 2.1 ± 0.3 to 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mean values of the ejection fraction, the peak early mitral inflow velocity, and the ratio of the peak early mitral inflow velocity to the peak late mitral inflow velocity increased significantly in both groups (P < .001, P < .01, and P < .05, respectively). The mean NYHA functional class significantly improved in both groups (P < .0001). Conclusions: In patients with severe ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, surgical coronary revascularization can be safely carried out during the operative and early postoperative periods with low mortality rates. This procedure decreased left ventricular end-systolic volume, consistently increased contractility, and subsequently ameliorated the ejection fraction to produce improvements in clinical condition according to the NYHA functional class. Similar results have been obtained in patients who have undergone coronary bypass surgery and mitral valve repair, despite a higher operative risk and longer cardiopulmonary bypass circulation and aortic cross-clamping times.
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