New Therapeutic Avenues with Hybrid Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
Background: Minimally invasive strategies can be expanded by combining standard surgical and interventional techniques.
Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted of all pediatric patients who have undergone hybrid cardiac surgery at the University of Chicago Children's Hospital. Hybrid cardiac surgery was defined as combined catheter-based and surgical interventions in either one surgical setting or planned sequential surgical settings within a 24-hour period.
Results: Between June 2000 and June 2003, 24 patients were treated with hybrid approaches. Sixteen patients with muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) with a mean age of 4 months (range, 2 weeks to 4 years) underwent either sequential Amplatzer device closure in the catheterization laboratory followed by surgical completion (group 1A [n = 9]: right ventricular (RV) outflow tract enlargement, 6 patients; closure of other VSDs, 5 patients; tricuspid valvuloplasty, 3 patients; bidirectional Glenn shunt, 1 patient; Maze procedure, 1 patient; and retrieval of embolized device, 1 patient) or, more recently, a 1-stage intraoperative off-pump device closure (group 1B; n = 7) with the subsequent repair of concomitant heart lesions in 5 patients (double-outlet RV, 2 patients; arch hypoplasia/coarctation of the aorta, 2 patients; and pulmonary artery (PA) debanding, 1 patient). Cardioplegic arrest was either avoided or shortened in the muscular VSD patients. Eight patients with branch PA stenoses (group 2) underwent intraoperative PA stenting or stent balloon dilation along with RV outflow procedure (5 patients) or Fontan completion (3 patients with Maze procedure, mitral valvuloplasty, or Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure in 1 patient each). All patients survived hospitalization. Complications from the hybrid approach in group 1A patients included tricuspid regurgitation in 2 patients, RV disk malposition in 1 patient, embolization of a VSD device into the aorta in 1 patient, and a residual VSD in 1 patient. No complications from the hybrid approach occurred in group 1B patients, and PA rupture from stent overinflation and ventricular dysfunction occurred in 1 patient each in group 2. During a mean followup period of 18 months (range, 2-36 months), 2 group 1A patients died suddenly several months after discharge. All of the other patients are doing well.
Conclusions: Hybrid pediatric cardiac surgery performed in tandem by surgeons and cardiologists is a safe and effective means of reducing or eliminating cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with muscular VSDs who are small, have poor vascular access, or have concomitant cardiac lesions are currently treated in one setting with the perventricular approach.
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