Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Seeded on Tissue-Engineered Cardiac Patch Contribute to Myocardial Scar Remodeling and Enhance Revascularization in a Rabbit Model of Chronic Myocardial Infarction
Keywords:myocardial infarction, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, tissue engineering, remodeling, revascularization
Background: Although the transplantation of tissue-engineered cardiac patches with adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can enhance cardiac function after acute or chronic myocardial infarction (MI), the recovery mechanism remains controversial. This experiment aimed to investigate the outcome measurements of MSCs within a tissue-engineered cardiac patch in a rabbit chronic MI model.
Methods: This experiment was divided into four groups: left anterior descending artery (LAD) sham-operation group (N = 7), sham-transplantation (control, N = 7), non-seeded patch group (N = 7), and MSCs-seeded patch group (N = 6). PKH26 and 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled MSCs-seeded or non-seeded patches were transplanted onto chronically infarct rabbit hearts. Cardiac function was evaluated by cardiac hemodynamics. H&E staining was performed to count the number of vessels in the infarcted area. Masson staining was used to observe cardiac fiber formation and to measure scar thickness.
Results: Four weeks after transplantation, a remarkable improvement in cardiac functionality could be distinctly observed, which was most significant in the MSCs-seeded patch group. Moreover, labeled cells were detected in the myocardial scar, with most of them differentiated into myofibroblasts, some into smooth muscle cells, and only a few into cardiomyocytes in the MSCs-seeded patch group. We also observed significant revascularization in the infarct area implanted in either MSCs-seeded or non-seeded patches. In addition, there were significantly greater numbers of microvessels in the MSCs-seeded patch group than in the non-seeded patch group.
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