A Rare Cause of Right Heart Failure in An Adult: Congenital Gerbode Defect
Keywords:Gerbode defect, congenital, right heart failure, tricuspid valve regurgitation
Gerbode defect is a rare defect describing a left ventricle to right atrium shunt with symptoms dependent on the size and degree of the shunt. It is either a congenital defect detected in infancy, or an acquired case reported in older age. Diagnosis by means of echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is of paramount importance before surgical correction is contemplated to achieve a good prognosis.
Acar P, Séguela PE, Hascoet S. 2011. The Gerbode defect or left ventricular to right atrial shunt assessed by transthoracic 3D echocardiography. Echocardiography. 28(7): E140-2.
Dangol A, Bansal M, Al-Khatib Y. 2013. Transcatheter closure of acquired left ventricle-to-right atrium shunt: first case report in an infant and review of the literature. Pediatr Cardiol. 34(5):1258-60.
Dzwonczyk T, Davidson Jr. WR. 1995. The spectrum of left ventricular-right atrial communications in the adult: essentials of echocardiographic assessment. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 8(3):263-9.
Kelle AM, Young L, Kaushal S, Duffy CE, Anderson RH, Backer CL. 2009. The Gerbode defect: the significance of a left ventricular to right atrial shunt. Cardiol Young. 19 Suppl 2:96-9.
Saker E, Bahri GN, Montalbano MJ, et al. 2017. Gerbode defect: A comprehensive review of its history, anatomy, embryology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. J Saudi Heart Assoc. 29(4):283-292.
Uslu N, Kayacioglu I, Ates M, Eren M. 2007. 'Acquired' left ventricular to right atrial shunt after mitral valve replacement: detection by transthoracic colour Doppler echocardiography. Can J Cardiol. 23(9):735-6.
Venkatesh G, Lonn EM, Holder DA, Williams WG, Mulji A. 1996. Acquired left ventricular to right atrial communication and complete heart block following nonpenetrating cardiac trauma. Can J Cardiol. 12(4):349-52.
Yuan SM. 2015. A Systematic Review of Acquired Left Ventricle to Right Atrium Shunts (Gerbode Defects). Hellenic J Cardiol. 56(5):357-72.