Long-Term Outcomes of Left Ventricular Restoration in Patients Ineligible for Concomitant Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Keywords:left ventricular restoration, left ventricular aneurysm, severe coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting, left ventricular ejection fraction
Background: The prognosis of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing left ventricular restoration (LVR) and ineligible for concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unclear. This study illustrates the clinical characteristics and the long-term survival of these patients in a retrospective cohort.
Methods: From January 1999 to March 2021, a total of 78 patients underwent surgical left ventricular restoration without concomitant CABG at our center. The primary endpoint was the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to calculate survival, and compared by log-rank test, followed by multiple adjustments using Cox regression.
Results: The mean age was 55.3 ± 11.4 years. There were 76 (97.4%) true and 2 (2.6%) pseudo-aneurysms. Forty-six (59.0%) patients presented NYHA functional class III or IV. The mean EuroSCORE was 10.6 ± 3.2. Concomitant surgeries included mitral valve repair (N = 3), mitral valve replacement (N = 2), tricuspid valve repair (N = 2), ventricular septal defect closure (N = 18), maze procedure (N = 1), and appendage ligation (N = 1). Reoperation for bleeding was performed in one patient (1.3%). Prolonged ventilation was observed in 21 (26.9%) patients. Fourteen (17.9%) patients presented with low cardiac output and were supported with IABP. Operative death occurred in one (1.3%) patient. The median duration of echocardiographic follow-up was 53 months (interquartile range, 81.5) and was obtained in 46 (59.0%) patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved from 41.1% ± 10.5% to 45.6% ± 7.9% (P < 0.001), and the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) fell from 57.8 ± 6.6 mm to 52.0 ± 6.2 mm (P < 0.001). The median patient follow-up time was 79.5 months (interquartile range, 53.5). Overall, 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 98.7%, 95.5% and 82.3%, respectively.
Conclusions: Patients with severe CAD and ineligible for concomitant CABG are in critical condition, and LVR could be a reliable approach to improving cardiac function with satisfactory early and long-term outcomes
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