Good Recovery after Nontransthoracic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Rats
Background. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been shown to be associated with systemic inflammatory response leading to postoperative organ dysfunction. Unwanted side effects of CPB are well known but poorly understood due to the absence of a stable recovery animal model that is easy to handle and reduces experiment cost and time. The purpose of this study was to establish a good recoverable rat model of CPB to study the pathophysiology of these potential complications.
Materials and Methods. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 480 ± 20 g were randomly divided into either the CPB group (n = 10) or the sham group (n = 10). All rats were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. The carotid artery and jugular vein were cannulated. The blood was drained from the right atrium via the right jugular and further transferred by a miniaturized roller pump to a hollow fiber oxygenator and back to the rat via the left carotid artery. Priming consisted of 8 mL of homologous blood and 6 mL of colloid. The surface of the hollow fiber oxgenator was 0.075 m2. Rats were catheterized and brought on bypass for 120 minutes at a flow rate of 100-120 mL/kg per minute. Oxygen flow/perfusion flow was 0.8 to 1.0, and the mean arterial pressure remained 60 to 80 mmHg. Blood gas analysis, lactate dehydrogenase, and survival rate were examined subsequently.
Results. All CPB rats recovered from the operative process without incident and recovery remained uneventful in follow-up at 1 week. Normal cardiac function after successful weaning was confirmed by electrocardiography and blood pressure measurements. Mean arterial pressure remained stable. The results of blood gas analysis at different times were within normal range. No significant hemolysis could be detected with the use of lactate dehydrogenase during bypass.
Conclusions. The rat model of CPB can in principle simulate the clinical setting of human CPB. The non-transthoracic model is easy to establish and is associated with excellent recovery. This reproducible model may open the field for various studies on the pathophysiological process of CPB and systemic ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.
Baines M, Shenkin A. 2002. Use of antioxidants in surgery: a measure to reduce postoperative complications. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5:665-70.nCocchetto D, Bjornsson T. 1983. Methods of vascular access and collection of body fluids from laboratory rat. J Pharm Sci 5:465-92.nGourlay T, Ballaux PK, Draper ER, Taylor KM. 2002. Early experience with a new technique and technology designed for the study of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. Perfusion 17:191-8.nGu J, Mariani MA, Boonstra PW, Grandjean JG, van Oeveren W. 1999. Complement activation in coronary activation in coronary artery bypass grafting patients without cardiopulmonary bypass. Chest 116:892-8.nHayashi Y, Sawa Y, Nishimura M, et al. 2004. Peroxynitrite, a product between nitric oxide and superoxide anion, plays a cytotoxic role in the development of post-bypass systemic inflammatory response. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 26:276-80.nKawahira T, Wakita N, Minami H, Sakata M, Kitano I, Shida T. 2003. Lymphatic cardiac tamponade after open-heart surgery with liver dysfunction. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 51:669-71.nKazuo N, Takayuki U, Hiroyuki Y. 2005. Relationship between cerebral injury and inflammatory responses in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Cytokine 25:95-104.nPalanzo DA. 1997. Perfusion safety: past, present, and future. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 11:383-6.nPaparella D, Yau TM, Young E. 2002. Cardiopulmonary bypass induced inflammation: pathophysiology and treatment, an update. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 21:232-44.nProctor E. 1977. An oxygenator for cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. Surg Res 22:124-7.nAlexander B, Al Ani H. 1983. Prolonged partial cardiopulmonary bypass in rats. Surg Res 35:28-34.nSasaki S, Takigami K, Shiiya N, Yasuda K. 1996. Partial cardiopulmonary bypass in rats for evaluating ischemia-reperfusion injury. ASAIO J 42:1027-32.nSenra DF, Katz M, Passerotti GH, et al. 2001. A rat model of acute lung injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass. Shock 16:223-6.nSubramanian V, Mcleod J, Gana H. 1968. Effect of extracorporeal circulation on reticuloendothelial function: experimental evidence for impaired reticuloendothelial function following cardiopulmonary bypass in rats. Surgery 64:775-84.n
How to Cite
Author Disclosure & Copyright Transfer Agreement
In order to publish the original work of another person(s), The Heart Surgery Forum® must receive an acknowledgment of the Author Agreement and Copyright Transfer Statement transferring to Forum Multimedia Publishing, L.L.C., a subsidiary of Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. the exclusive rights to print and distribute the author(s) work in all media forms. Failure to check Copyright Transfer agreement box below will delay publication of the manuscript.
A current form follows:
The author(s) hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership of the manuscript submitted to Forum Multimedia Publishing, LLC (Publisher). The copyright transfer covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article and the material contained therein throughout the world in all languages and in all media of expression now known or later developed, including but not limited to reprints, photographic reproduction, microfilm, electronic data processing (including programming, storage, and transmission to other electronic data record(s), or any other reproductions of similar nature), and translations.
However, Publisher grants back to the author(s) the following:
- The right to make and distribute copies of all or part of this work for use of the author(s) in teaching;
- The right to use, after publication in The Heart Surgery Forum, all or part of the material from this work in a book by the author(s), or in a collection of work by the author(s);
- The royalty-free right to make copies of this work for internal distribution within the institution/company that employs the author(s) subject to the provisions below for a work-made-for-hire;
- The right to use figures and tables from this work, and up to 250 words of text, for any purpose;
- The right to make oral presentations of material from this work.
Publisher reserves the right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. To republish, such third parties must obtain written permission from the Publisher. (This is in accordance with the Copyright Statute, United States Code, Title 17. Exception: If all authors were bona fide officers or employees of the U.S. Government at the time the paper was prepared, the work is a “work of the US Government” (prepared by an officer or employee of the US Government as part of official duties), and therefore is not subject to US copyright; such exception should be indicated on signature lines. If this work was prepared under US Government contract or grant, the US Government may reproduce, royalty-free, all or portions of this work and may authorize others to do so, for official US Government purposes only, if the US Government contract or grant so requires.
I have participated in the conception and design of this work and in the writing of the manuscript and take public responsibility for it. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been published, has been submitted for publication elsewhere, or will be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by The Heart Surgery Forum, except as described in an attachment. I have reviewed this manuscript (original version) and approve its submission. If I am listed above as corresponding author, I will provide all authors with information regarding this manuscript and will obtain their approval before submitting any revision. I attest to the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of the content of the manuscript and understand that Publisher assumes no responsibility for the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of its content. I warrant that this manuscript is original with me and that I have full power to make this Agreement. I warrant that it contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful or that invades individual privacy or infringes any copyright or other proprietary right. I agree to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless of and from any claim made against Publisher that relates to or arises out of the publication of the manuscript and agree that this indemnification shall include payment of all costs and expenses relating to the defense of any such claim, including all reasonable attorney’s fees.
I warrant that I have no financial interest in the drugs, devices, or procedures described in the manuscript (except as disclosed in the attached statement).
I state that the institutional Human Subjects Committee and/or the Ethics Committee approved the clinical protocol reported in this manuscript for the use of experimental techniques, drugs, or devices in human subjects and appropriate informed consent documents were utilized.
Furthermore, I state that any and all animals used for experimental purposes received humane care in USDA registered facilities in compliance with the “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” formulated by the National Society for Medical Research and the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1985).