Female Risk Using OPCAB, ?-Circuit, and Aorta No-Touch Coronary Revascularization


  • Sotirios N. Prapas
  • Ioannis A. Panagiotopoulos
  • Mohamed A. Salama Ayyad
  • Vassilis N. Kotsis
  • Dimitris A. Protogeros
  • Ioannis N. Linardakis
  • Theofanis P. Tzanavaras
  • Fotini N. Danou




Background: In this study, we evaluated female sex as a risk factor in the off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB), aorta no-touch technique.

Materials and Methods: From February 2001 to November 2005, 1359 patients in our institution underwent isolated coronary revascularization with the ?-circuit technique, which consists of (1) beating heart surgery, (2) OPCAB, (3) no touching of the aorta, (4) use of composite grafts, and (5) arterial revascularization. There were 1159 men (group A) and 200 women (group B). Both groups were compared with respect to preoperative risk factors, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Follow-up lasted from 4 to 60 months. Data were analyzed with the ?2 test, the Fisher exact test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox model of regression analysis.

Results: Female patients were older (P < .0005) and had higher prevalences of obesity (P < .0005), arterial hypertension (P < .0005), and diabetes (P < .0005). Emergency operations were also more frequent in this group (P < .027). There was no difference between the groups in the preoperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). The 2 groups were not significantly different with respect to 30-day mortality (1.1% versus 4%) or 7-day mortality (0.3% versus 0%). The 2 groups had comparable rates of IABP use postoperatively. Cognitive disturbances and strokes were rarely encountered (0.6% in men and 0.2% in women). In the early postoperative phase, women had more pulmonary complications (P < .014), and survival seemed to favor the male group during the follow-up period (P < .001). Further analysis with the Cox regression model with exclusion of confounding preoperative morbidity factors (more prevalent in group B) showed that the 2 groups had similar survival rates. As a group, women were 1.06 times more likely to die from a cardiac cause than men (P < .897).

Conclusions: The use of the ?-circuit, aorta no-touch technique is equally effective and safe for both sexes. Women are more prone to pulmonary complications in the early postoperative phase. The apparent difference in survival favoring men can be attributed to the higher prevalence of preoperative risk factors in women. In general, we consider the off-pump, aorta no-touch technique an effective method for lowering morbidity and mortality in the relatively high-risk female patient group.


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How to Cite

Prapas, S. N., Panagiotopoulos, I. A., Ayyad, M. A. S., Kotsis, V. N., Protogeros, D. A., Linardakis, I. N., Tzanavaras, T. P., & Danou, F. N. (2009). Female Risk Using OPCAB, ?-Circuit, and Aorta No-Touch Coronary Revascularization. The Heart Surgery Forum, 12(6), E344-E348. https://doi.org/10.1532/HSF98.20091124




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