Conservative Surgical Treatment for Active Infective Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis according to the "Clover Technique"


  • Georges Fayad
  • Thomas Modine
  • Christophe Lions
  • Anne-Sophie Polge
  • Richard Azzaoui
  • Benoît Larrue
  • Christophe Decoene
  • Olivier Leroy
  • Eric Senneville
  • Jean-Paul Beregi
  • Henri Warembourg



Aims. This prospective study was undertaken to analyze the outcomes of conservative surgery with the "clover technique" for active infective tricuspid valve endocarditis.

Methods. Five consecutive patients underwent surgery for active infective tricuspid valve endocarditis. The mean age was 36.6 years. Four of the patients were men. In all patients, the tricuspid valve had become mutilated and infected. One patient had associated mitral endocarditis, and one had aortic endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial species. Conservative surgery was indicated in all patients with infection limited to the leaflets and/or subvalvular apparatus of the tricuspid valve. Total resection of infected tissues was achieved in all cases. The tricuspid valve was then reconstructed according to the clover technique. A tricuspid annular ring was used in 2 patients.

Results. All 5 patients survived surgery. Intraoperative transesophageal and predischarge transthoracic echocardiographic evaluations showed good results in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 26.4 ± 12.5 months. No recurrent bacterial tricuspid endocarditis occurred during follow-up. All patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I. A transthoracic echocardiography evaluation at the latest control examination showed trivial leakage (3 patients) or no residual regurgitation (2 patients); no transvalvular gradient was found in any of the patients. No tricuspid valve calcification has been detected to date. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging analyses showed no postoperative void flow and confirmed the preservation of right ventricular function and thus the reliability of this technique.

Conclusions. This novel technique is indicated for tricuspid valve endocarditis and should be considered as an adequate approach in cases of uncontrollable infection involving the tricuspid valve that is responsible for extended valve destruction.


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How to Cite

Fayad, G., Modine, T., Lions, C., Polge, A.-S., Azzaoui, R., Larrue, B., Decoene, C., Leroy, O., Senneville, E., Beregi, J.-P., & Warembourg, H. (2008). Conservative Surgical Treatment for Active Infective Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis according to the "Clover Technique". The Heart Surgery Forum, 11(2), E120-E126.