Congenital Lobar Emphysema: Perioperative Evaluation and Management
Keywords:Congenital lobar overinflation, Lobectomy, Neonatal respiratory distress
Background: Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a lung malformation characterized by overdistension and air trapping in the affected lobe. It is one of the causes of neonatal and infantile respiratory distress. This study aimed to evaluate our experience regarding perioperative and surgical management in children with CLE.
Methods: A retrospective observational study was done for all CLE patients who underwent surgery at Menoufia University Hospital. Perioperative data collected included demographic, clinical, and radiological findings, as well as operative and postoperative data.
Results: We included 30 neonates and infants who suffered from CLE between January 2013 and December 2020; the mean age was 111.43 ± 65.19 days, and 21 were males. All cases presented with respiratory distress; 19 had cyanosis, and 15 had recurrent pneumonia and fever. Plain chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT) revealed emphysema in all cases. Lobectomy was done in all cases; the mean age at surgery was 147.58 ± 81.49 days. Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients, and 2 of them needed mechanical ventilation. The follow-up duration ranged from 3 months to 1 year (except 1 case lost to follow-up after 3 months), and all patients were doing well.
Conclusion: CLE is a rare bronchopulmonary malformation that requires a high index of clinical suspicion, especially in persistent and recurrent infantile respiratory distress. Chest CT is the most useful diagnostic modality. Early management of CLE improves outcome and prevents life-threatening complications. Surgical management is the treatment of choice in our center, without recorded mortality.
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