Outcomes of the Extracardiac Fontan Procedure Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Early Results
Background: Although the avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass during the Fontan procedure has potential advantages, using cardiopulmonary bypass during this procedure has no adverse effects in terms of morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, we assessed the postoperative outcomes of our first 9 patients who have undergone extracardiac Fontan operation by the same surgeon using cardiopulmonary bypass.
Methods: Between September 2011 and April 2013, 9 consecutive patients (3 males and 6 females) underwent extra-cardiac Fontan operation. All operations were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass at normothermia by the same surgeon. The age of patients ranged between 4 and 17 (9.8 ± 4.2) years. Previous operations performed on these patients were modified Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure in 2 patients, bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt operation in 6 patients, and pulmonary arterial banding in 1 patient. Except 2 patients who required intracardiac intervention, cross-clamping was not applied. In all patients, the extracardiac Fontan procedure was carried out by interposing an appropriately sized tube graft between the infe-rior vena cava and right pulmonary artery.
Results: The mean intraoperative Fontan pressure and transpulmonary gradient were 12.3 ± 2.5 and 6.9 ± 2.2 mm Hg, respectively. Intraoperative fenestration was not required. There was no mortality and 7 patients were discharged with-out complications. Complications included persistent pleural effusion in 1 patient and a transient neurological event in 1 patient. All patients were weaned off mechanical ventila-tion within 24 hours. The mean arterial oxygen saturation increased from 76.1% ± 5.3% to 93.5% ± 2.2%. All patients were in sinus rhythm postoperatively. Five patients required blood and blood-product transfusions. The mean intensive care unit and hospital stay periods were 2.9 ± 1.7 and 8.2 ± 1.9 days, respectively.
Conclusions: The extracardiac Fontan operation per-formed using cardiopulmonary bypass provides satisfactory results in short-term follow-up and is associated with favor-able postoperative hemodynamics and morbidity rates.
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