Mild Systemic Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest Using a Frozen Elephant Trunk Graft with Endo-Balloon Occlusion for Total Arch Replacement
Keywords:total arch replacement, Frozen elephant trunk, thoracic aortic aneurysm, retrograde perfusion
Background: Stroke and paraplegia are serious complications of total aortic arch replacement (TAR). Hypothermic circulatory arrest and cerebral perfusion reduce the risk of neurologic complications, but longer circulatory arrest time remains a risk factor for such complications. We utilized a frozen elephant trunk (FET) with endo-balloon occlusion under mild systemic hypothermia, which allowed us to shorten circulatory arrest time.
Methods: Between April 2007 and May 2020, 72 patients underwent elective TAR using antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP). They were divided into 2 groups. 64 patients received conventional TAR with moderate systemic hypothermic (bladder temperature, 25–28°C) circulatory arrest (group C). We used a FET with endo-balloon occlusion and retrograde perfusion through the femoral artery for the newest 8 patients who had mild hypothermic (bladder temperature of 30°C) circulatory arrest (group B).
Results: The mean operation time (257.5 ± 42.1 versus 327.8 ± 84.9 min, P = .023), CPB time (144.4 ± 28.1 versus 178.2 ± 26.4 min, P = .003), cardiac arrest time (75.5 ± 21.2 versus 95.7 ± 56.4 min, P < .001), SCP time (100.8 ± 25.5 versus 124 ± 23.2 min, P < .001), lower body circulation arrest time (17.2 ± 4.2 versus 62.5 ± 19.3 min, P < .001) were significantly shorter in the endo-balloon occlusion group. There were no perioperative neurological and renal complications or mortality in FET group. The new technique enabled a decrease in mechanical ventilation time (8.6 ± 1.4 versus 13.9 ± 5.7 min, P = .015) and hospital length of stay (9.7 ± 1.8 versus 18.3 ± 4.6 min, P = .005).
Conclusion: FET using an endo-balloon occlusion with mild hypothermia is a safe and an effective approach in TAR.
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