Comparison of Short and Mid-Term Mortality and Morbidity in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis (Intermediate/High Risk) Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement
Keywords:aortic surgery, cardiac surgery, transcatheter aortic valve replacement
Treatment protocols for severe aortic valve stenosis include surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), balloon valvuloplasty, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and medical treatment. Because the success rates are getting higher with both SAVR and TAVR, making the right treatment decision is important.
This study retrospectively shows the short- (1 month) and mid-term (6 months) mortality and morbidity rate differences between 2 groups of patients, who arrived to our hospital from January 2014 through October 2018. The first group consists of 54 patients who underwent mid-high risk SAVR operations at Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery. The second group consists of 57 patients who underwent TAVR at the Cardiology Department.
Preoperative evaluation showed that the mean age of the SAVR group (71.5 years) was higher than the TAVR group (80 years). Also, the history of previous cardiac valve replacement surgery significantly was higher in the SAVR group than the TAVR group (P = .028). There were no significant differences between the remaining preoperative tests and diagnostic procedures.
Of the patients who underwent SAVR, 3.7% experienced postoperative cardiac arrhythmias, while the 17.5% of patients from the TAVR group experienced cardiac arrhythmias after the procedure. This difference between the groups were statistically significant. Mortality rate was 9.3% in the SAVR group and 5.3% in the TAVR group. The mortality rate was not statistically different between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the means of neurological incidents. The TAVR group had more vascular complications (17.9% to none) and pacemaker implantations (21.4% to 1.9%).
Minor or major bleeding was the most common reason for admission to the hospital after SAVR. Seven out of 10 patients experienced bleeding. Aortic regurgitation was more common in the TAVR group at the first and sixth month following the procedure. Ratios between the gradient values were higher in the SAVR group (P < .001). Peak gradient values at the sixth month following the procedure were lower than the values of the first month (P < .040).
Aortic regurgitation symptoms increased with patients at the mid-term follow-up appointment. To prevent the vascular complications in the TAVR group, preoperative peripheral vascular examination thoroughly should be performed. Considering that bleeding disorders are the main reason the SAVR group arrived to the hospital, INR values should closely be monitored. There seems to be no mortality difference between the groups at the six-month follow up, but studies should continue with more patients and long-term results.
Daubert MA, Weissman NJ, Hahn RT, Pibarot P, Parvataneni R, Mack MJ, Douglas PS. 2017. Long-Term Valve Performance of TAVR and SAVR. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 10(1), 15–25.
Emery RW, Nicoloff DM, Fisher M, et al. 1979. St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prosthesis: in vitro studies. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 78:269-76.
Fernandez J,Chen C, et al. 1996. Predictive value of prosthetic valve area index for early and late clinical results after valve replacement with the St Jude Medical valve prosthesis. Circulation 94:109-12.
Gustav Horsted H, Steinbrüchel DA, et al. 2015. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, J Am Coll Cardiol 65:2184-94.
Leon MB, Smith CR, et al. 2016. Transcatheter or surgival aortic valve replacement in intermediate risk patients, N Engl J Med 374:1609-20.
Mack MJ, Leon MB, Smith CR, et al. 2015. 5-year outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement or surgical aortic valve replacement for high surgical risk patients with aortic stenosis (PARTNER 1): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385: 2477–84.
Nishimura RA. 2002. Low-Output, Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis in Patients With Depressed Left Ventricular Systolic Function. Circulation. 106:770-772.
O’Brien SM, Shahian DM, Filardo G, et al. 2009. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac surgery risk models. 2. Isolated valve surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 88:Suppl 1:S23-42.
Smith CR, Leon MB, et al. 2011. Transcatheter versus Surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-rish patients, N Eng J Med 364:2187-98.
Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ. 2011. Transcatheter versus Surgical Aortic-Valve Replacement in High-Risk Patients. N Engl J Med 364:2187-2198.
Susheel K, Mathew R, et al. 2012. Two-Year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement, N Engl J Med 336:1686-95.
How to Cite
Author Disclosure & Copyright Transfer Agreement
In order to publish the original work of another person(s), The Heart Surgery Forum® must receive an acknowledgment of the Author Agreement and Copyright Transfer Statement transferring to Forum Multimedia Publishing, L.L.C., a subsidiary of Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. the exclusive rights to print and distribute the author(s) work in all media forms. Failure to check Copyright Transfer agreement box below will delay publication of the manuscript.
A current form follows:
The author(s) hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership of the manuscript submitted to Forum Multimedia Publishing, LLC (Publisher). The copyright transfer covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article and the material contained therein throughout the world in all languages and in all media of expression now known or later developed, including but not limited to reprints, photographic reproduction, microfilm, electronic data processing (including programming, storage, and transmission to other electronic data record(s), or any other reproductions of similar nature), and translations.
However, Publisher grants back to the author(s) the following:
- The right to make and distribute copies of all or part of this work for use of the author(s) in teaching;
- The right to use, after publication in The Heart Surgery Forum, all or part of the material from this work in a book by the author(s), or in a collection of work by the author(s);
- The royalty-free right to make copies of this work for internal distribution within the institution/company that employs the author(s) subject to the provisions below for a work-made-for-hire;
- The right to use figures and tables from this work, and up to 250 words of text, for any purpose;
- The right to make oral presentations of material from this work.
Publisher reserves the right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. To republish, such third parties must obtain written permission from the Publisher. (This is in accordance with the Copyright Statute, United States Code, Title 17. Exception: If all authors were bona fide officers or employees of the U.S. Government at the time the paper was prepared, the work is a “work of the US Government” (prepared by an officer or employee of the US Government as part of official duties), and therefore is not subject to US copyright; such exception should be indicated on signature lines. If this work was prepared under US Government contract or grant, the US Government may reproduce, royalty-free, all or portions of this work and may authorize others to do so, for official US Government purposes only, if the US Government contract or grant so requires.
I have participated in the conception and design of this work and in the writing of the manuscript and take public responsibility for it. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been published, has been submitted for publication elsewhere, or will be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by The Heart Surgery Forum, except as described in an attachment. I have reviewed this manuscript (original version) and approve its submission. If I am listed above as corresponding author, I will provide all authors with information regarding this manuscript and will obtain their approval before submitting any revision. I attest to the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of the content of the manuscript and understand that Publisher assumes no responsibility for the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of its content. I warrant that this manuscript is original with me and that I have full power to make this Agreement. I warrant that it contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful or that invades individual privacy or infringes any copyright or other proprietary right. I agree to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless of and from any claim made against Publisher that relates to or arises out of the publication of the manuscript and agree that this indemnification shall include payment of all costs and expenses relating to the defense of any such claim, including all reasonable attorney’s fees.
I warrant that I have no financial interest in the drugs, devices, or procedures described in the manuscript (except as disclosed in the attached statement).
I state that the institutional Human Subjects Committee and/or the Ethics Committee approved the clinical protocol reported in this manuscript for the use of experimental techniques, drugs, or devices in human subjects and appropriate informed consent documents were utilized.
Furthermore, I state that any and all animals used for experimental purposes received humane care in USDA registered facilities in compliance with the “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” formulated by the National Society for Medical Research and the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1985).