Readmission to the Intensive Care Unit after Fast-Track Cardiac Surgery: An Analysis of Risk Factors and Outcome according to the Type of Operation
Introduction: In the present study, we investigated risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) readmission after fasttrack cardiac surgery and analyzed outcome data according to the type of surgical procedure.
Methods: Between 1999 and 2008, we prospectively enrolled 4270 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (CABG group, n = 3754), isolated valve surgery (valve group, n = 353), or combined CABG and valve surgery (CABG + valve group, n = 163) in the study.
Results: Ninety-eight patients (2.2%) were readmitted to the ICU. Of these patients, 73 were in the CABG group (1.9% of this group), 16 were in the valve group (4.5%), and 9 were in the CABG + valve group (5.5%). The main reason for ICU readmission in all groups was respiratory distress. A multivariate analysis showed that the independent risk factors for ICU readmission in the CABG group were an age >65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.4; P = .001), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-6.1; P = .016), and drainage >500 mL (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; P = .009). The independent risk factors for the valve group included only preoperative congestive heart failure (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3-11.7; P = .01). No independent risk factor was defined for the CABG + valve group. Mortality was significantly higher among the readmitted patients in all groups.
Conclusions: The risk factors for readmission after cardiac surgery with fast-track recovery may differ according to the type of operation. A strict control of volume balance and blood transfusion may further help prevent the occurrence of the most frequent cause of readmission, respiratory failure.
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