A New Perspective in Comparing Injuries Caused by Short-Duration External and Internal Forces in Saphenous Vein

  • Emine Seyma Denli Yalvac Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Göztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Alev Cumbul Department of Histology and Embryology,Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Unal Uslu Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Göztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Erdem Soztutar Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Edibe Bilisli Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Naci Balak Department of Neurosurgery, Göztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2395-0004


Background: Great saphenous vein (GSV) graft failure is one of the major reasons for repeat bypass grafting. A comparison of the effects of simultaneous, short-duration, externally squeezing and internally distending forces on the same segment of ex-vivo human GSV has not yet been published, although similar studies have compared the experimental injury of different ex-vivo human veins.

Methods: Approximately 8-cm-long segments of GSV were harvested from each of the 15 patients. For each specimen, one end of the vein piece was occluded at a distance of 1 cm with an external cross-clamp for 5 min and the other end was similarly occluded at a distance of 1 cm by an endoluminal balloon. The middle sections of the veins, which were not occluded by any means, were taken as the control group. Two histologists, who were blinded to the groups, graded the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Weigert-Van Gieson (WVG) stained sections semi-quantitatively and performed the
histomorphometric measurements.

Results: The result of the histopathological evaluation of the intima layer showed that the microscopic scoring of lesions in the balloon group was significantly higher than that in the clamp and control groups (5.16 ± 1.32, 3.83 ± 0.75, and 1.00 ± 1.09, respectively; P < .001). In the adventitia layer, this level of scoring increased more in the clamp group than in the balloon and control groups (5.16 ± 1.16, 3.00 ± 0.89, and 0.16 ± 0.40, respectively; P < .001).

Conclusion: Both the endoluminal balloon and external clamp techniques have harmful effects on the vein wall. Studying different kind of forces on different veins cannot provide us with reliable comparisons.


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