Identifying the Risk Factor and Prevention of Limb Ischemia in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation with Femoral Artery Cannulation
Keywords:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), Limb ischemia, Distal perfusion catheter (DPC)
Objective: Application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for life support has been widely used in various fields of resuscitation. When the common femoral artery (CFA) is used during cannulation for ECMO support in adults, it is often complicated by limb ischemia. Placement of distal perfusion catheter (DPC) can reduce the incidence of limb ischemia and increases the likelihood of limb preservation, but selection criteria is uncertain.
Methods: This is a retrospective study. Data was reviewed for patients in one medical center who were supported by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) via CFA cannulation percutaneously between January 2008 and June 2014. Two groups were divided into no-ischemia and ischemic limb. Age, sex, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), cannula size, femoral artery diameter, comorbidity, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) and mortality rate were analyzed. Doppler was used by measuring the distal pulsation in the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial artery to select the patients. A DPC was prophylactically inserted percutaneously into the superficial femoral artery for antegrade flow to the extremity in the patients who met selection criteria.
Results: 139 (43.6%) patients were included in the study and limb ischemia occurred in 46 (33%) of 139. There was a significant difference between the no-ischemia group and the ischemia group in age (55.5 ± 14.2 versus 63.2 ± 13.2;
P < .001), common femoral artery diameter (0.82 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.17; P < .001 ), known peripheral artery occlusive disease (9% versus 24%; P < .001) and VIS (12.1 ± 8.1 versus 15.8 ± 10.1; P < .001). Mortality rate was higher in the ischemia group (46% versus 26% ; P < .001). 11 patients who met the selection criteria had a DPC prophylactically inserted and no ischemia limb occurred.
Conclusion: Smaller common femoral artery diameter (≤6.3 cm); known peripheral arterial occlusive disease; higher VIS (≥15.8); absence of distal pulsation pre-cannulation or immediately after post-cannulation or 4 hrs later have higher risk of limb ischemia when CFA cannulation is used for VA-ECMO. Due to this, the mortality and morbidity rate increases when limb ischemia occurs. A DPC should be prophylactically inserted in high-risk patients who meet selection criteria.
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