Staged or Combined Approach for Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 5-Year-Long Experience
AbstractBackground: Optimal surgical approach for patients with hemodynamically significant carotid and coronary disease remains controversial. We analyzed our 5-year experience and compared early and long-term outcome following staged and combined carotid and coronary artery bypass.
Methods: 312 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass between 2008 and 2013 were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients were scheduled for a staged (carotid endarterectomy followed by coronary artery bypass within 1 week) procedure (Group S) unless they were unstable in terms of cardiac status (were deemed to a combined procedure; Group C). All patient data including demographics, risk factors, immediate perioperative events, 30-day, and long-term outcome were prospectively recorded and then analyzed. Groups S and C were compared for pre- and perioperative data as well as immediate, 30-day, and long-term survival. A P value less than .05 was considered significant. Survival analysis was made using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.
Results: Group S included 204 patients and Group C included 108 patients. Preoperative demographics and clinical data were similar in the two groups except that preoperative cerebrovascular events were more common in Group C (31.7% versus 22.22%, P = .036) and bilateral carotid disease was more common in Group S. The EuroSCORE was higher in Group C (2.91 versus 2.65, P = .013). Carotid surgery techniques were similar; intraluminal shunting was more frequent in group C than group S (33.33% versus 9.88%, P = .001). Additional cardiac procedures in addition to coronary surgery was predominant in Group C. 30-day neurological adverse event rates, ICU, and hospital stay were significantly higher in Group C. The 30-day mortality was also sigficantly higher in Group C (1.96% versus 4.62%, P = .001).
Conclusion: Staged and combined surgical approaches yield comparable outcomes. A staged approach may provide a more favorable neurological outcome with significantly reduced need for intraluminal shunting. Long-term outcome is, however, similar.
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