Simple Technique to Verify CO<sub>2</sub> Diffusion with the CarbonAid™ Device
AbstractIt has become common practice in cardiac surgery to flood the operative field with CO2 to facilitate deairing of the heart. However, CO2 delivery is variable and verification of CO2 delivery can be challenging. We report a simple, reliable method to confirm CO2 delivery. This technique ensures that the benefits of CO2 delivery are provided to the patient during the operation.
Al-Rashidi F, Landenhed M, Blomquist S, et al. 2011. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of a new de-airing technique with a standardized carbon dioxide insufflation technique in open left heart surgery: a randomized clinical trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 141:1128-33.nBraekken SE, Reinvang I, Russell D, Brucher R, Svennevig JL. 1998. Association between intraoperative cerebral microembolic signals and postoperative neuropsychological deficit: comparison between patients with cardiac valve replacement and patients with coronary artery bypass grafting. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65:573-6.nChaudhuri K, Marasco SF. 2011. The effect of carbon dioxide insufflation on cognitive function during cardiac surgery. J Card Surg 26:189-96.nFrey JM, Svegby HK, Svenaud PK, et al. 2010. CO2 insufflation influences the temperature of the open surgical wound. Wound Repair Regen 18:378-82.nKalpokas MV, Nixon IK, Kluger R, et al. 2003. Carbon dioxide field flooding versus mechanical de-airing during open-heart surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Perfusion 18:291-4.nMartens S, Dietrich M, Walls S, et al. 2001. Conventional carbon dioxide application does not reduce cerebral or myocardial damage in open heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 72:1940-4.nMitz MA. 1979. CO2 biodynamics: a new concept of cellular control. J Theor Biol 80:537-51.nNichols HT, Morse DP, Hirose T. 1958. Coronary and other air embolization occurring during open heart surgery prevention by the use of gaseous carbon dioxide. Surgery 43:236-44.nPersson M, Svenarud P, van der Linden J. 2004. What is the optimal device for carbon dioxide deairing of the cardiothoracic wound and how should it be positioned? J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 18:180-4.nPersson M, Van Der Linden J. 2003. De-airing of a cardiothoracic wound cavity model with carbon dioxide. Theory and comparison of a gas diffuser with conventional tubes. J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 17:329-35.nPersson M, Van Der Linden J. 2008. Intraoperative CO2 insufflation can decrease the risk of surgical site infection. Med Hypotheses 71:8-13.nRaymond PD, Hinton-Bayre AD, Radel M, et al. 2006. Assessment of statistical change criteria used to define significant change in neuropsychological test performance following cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothor Surg 29:82-8.nSvenarud P, Persson M, van der Linden J. 2004. Effect of CO2 insuffl ation on the number and behavior of air microemboli in open-heart surgery. Circulation. 109:1127-32.n
How to Cite
Author Disclosure & Copyright Transfer Agreement
In order to publish the original work of another person(s), The Heart Surgery Forum® must receive an acknowledgment of the Author Agreement and Copyright Transfer Statement transferring to Forum Multimedia Publishing, L.L.C., a subsidiary of Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. the exclusive rights to print and distribute the author(s) work in all media forms. Failure to check Copyright Transfer agreement box below will delay publication of the manuscript.
A current form follows:
The author(s) hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership of the manuscript submitted to Forum Multimedia Publishing, LLC (Publisher). The copyright transfer covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article and the material contained therein throughout the world in all languages and in all media of expression now known or later developed, including but not limited to reprints, photographic reproduction, microfilm, electronic data processing (including programming, storage, and transmission to other electronic data record(s), or any other reproductions of similar nature), and translations.
However, Publisher grants back to the author(s) the following:
- The right to make and distribute copies of all or part of this work for use of the author(s) in teaching;
- The right to use, after publication in The Heart Surgery Forum, all or part of the material from this work in a book by the author(s), or in a collection of work by the author(s);
- The royalty-free right to make copies of this work for internal distribution within the institution/company that employs the author(s) subject to the provisions below for a work-made-for-hire;
- The right to use figures and tables from this work, and up to 250 words of text, for any purpose;
- The right to make oral presentations of material from this work.
Publisher reserves the right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. To republish, such third parties must obtain written permission from the Publisher. (This is in accordance with the Copyright Statute, United States Code, Title 17. Exception: If all authors were bona fide officers or employees of the U.S. Government at the time the paper was prepared, the work is a “work of the US Government” (prepared by an officer or employee of the US Government as part of official duties), and therefore is not subject to US copyright; such exception should be indicated on signature lines. If this work was prepared under US Government contract or grant, the US Government may reproduce, royalty-free, all or portions of this work and may authorize others to do so, for official US Government purposes only, if the US Government contract or grant so requires.
I have participated in the conception and design of this work and in the writing of the manuscript and take public responsibility for it. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been published, has been submitted for publication elsewhere, or will be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by The Heart Surgery Forum, except as described in an attachment. I have reviewed this manuscript (original version) and approve its submission. If I am listed above as corresponding author, I will provide all authors with information regarding this manuscript and will obtain their approval before submitting any revision. I attest to the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of the content of the manuscript and understand that Publisher assumes no responsibility for the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of its content. I warrant that this manuscript is original with me and that I have full power to make this Agreement. I warrant that it contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful or that invades individual privacy or infringes any copyright or other proprietary right. I agree to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless of and from any claim made against Publisher that relates to or arises out of the publication of the manuscript and agree that this indemnification shall include payment of all costs and expenses relating to the defense of any such claim, including all reasonable attorney’s fees.
I warrant that I have no financial interest in the drugs, devices, or procedures described in the manuscript (except as disclosed in the attached statement).
I state that the institutional Human Subjects Committee and/or the Ethics Committee approved the clinical protocol reported in this manuscript for the use of experimental techniques, drugs, or devices in human subjects and appropriate informed consent documents were utilized.
Furthermore, I state that any and all animals used for experimental purposes received humane care in USDA registered facilities in compliance with the “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” formulated by the National Society for Medical Research and the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1985).