Complications following Placement or Extraction of Endovascular Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads-- Cardiothoracic Surgical Intervention: Case Reports


  • Louis E. Samuels
  • Elena C. Holmes
  • Matthew P. Thomas
  • Luis Berrizbeitia



Complications related to the insertion or removal of permanent pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators are rare events. However, when adverse events occur, their severity may be life threatening. Rapid recognition of a problem followed by prompt consultation with a cardiothoracic surgeon is necessary to stabilize potentially catastrophic events. The immediate availability of surgical instruments as well as a formalized algorithm for management is necessary to control hemorrhagic situations. Four case reports illustrate these points.


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How to Cite

Samuels, L. E., Holmes, E. C., Thomas, M. P., & Berrizbeitia, L. (2005). Complications following Placement or Extraction of Endovascular Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads-- Cardiothoracic Surgical Intervention: Case Reports. The Heart Surgery Forum, 7(3), E236-E239.