Surgical Strategy in Patients with Atrial Septal Defect and Severe Pulmonary Hypertension
AbstractThe aim of the study was to review our experience with atrial septal defect (ASD) closure with a fenestrated patch in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Between July 2004 and February 2009, 16 patients with isolated ASD underwent closure with a fenestrated patch. All patients had a secundum type ASD and severe pulmonary hypertension. Patients ranged in age from 6 to 57 years (mean ± SD, 34.9 ± 13.5 years). The follow-up period was 9 to 59 months (mean, 34.5 ± 13.1 months). The ranges of preoperative systolic and pulmonary arterial pressures were 63 to 119 mm Hg (mean, 83.8 ± 13.9 mm Hg) and 37 to 77 mm Hg (mean, 51.1 ± 10.1 mm Hg). The ranges of preoperative values for the ratio of the pulmonary flow to the systemic flow and for pulmonary arterial resistance were 1.1 to 2.7 (mean, 1.95 ± 0.5) and 3.9 to 16.7 Wood units (mean, 9.8 ± 2.9 Wood units), respectively. There was no early or late mortality. Tricuspid annuloplasty was performed in 14 patients (87.5%). The peak tricuspid regurgitation gradient and the ratio of the systolic pulmonary artery pressure to the systemic arterial pressure were decreased in all patients. The New York Heart Association class and the grade of tricuspid regurgitation were improved in 13 patients (81.2%) and 15 patients (93.7%), respectively. ASD closure in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension can be performed safely if we create fenestration. Tricuspid annuloplasty and a Cox maze procedure may improve the clinical result. Close observation and follow-up will be needed to validate the long-term benefits.
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