Hybrid Procedures for Complex Congenital Cardiac Lesions


  • Constantinos A. Contrafouris
  • Fotios A. Mitropoulos
  • Andrew C. Chatzis
  • Nikolaos M. Giannopoulos
  • Michael Milonakis
  • Spyridon Rammos
  • Mike Azariades




Background: We present an alternative treatment employing a hybrid approach used in 3 patients with congenital heart disease. The goal was to provide optimal therapy by minimizing the potentially harmful effects of methods that accompany conventional surgical procedures.

Methods: Two patients aged 4 and 6 months underwent beating-heart closure of a muscular ventricular septal defect (VSD) with an occluding device. In addition, an 8-year-old patient with supraaortic, main, and branch pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis underwent conventional surgical patch augmentation of the ascending aorta and the main PA and intraoperative stenting of the branch PA stenoses.

Results: No patient deaths occurred. One patient developed a postoperative pneumothorax. Median intensive care unit and hospital stays for the VSD patients were 1 and 5 days and for the other patients 2 and 20 days, respectively. At median follow-up of 25 months, all patients were well and had required no further interventions.

Conclusions: Patients with muscular VSD can currently be treated with the hybrid approach. Intraoperative PA stenting in addition to conventional surgical repair can be performed safely and may be complementary in patients with complex lesions.


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How to Cite

Contrafouris, C. A., Mitropoulos, F. A., Chatzis, A. C., Giannopoulos, N. M., Milonakis, M., Rammos, S., & Azariades, M. (2009). Hybrid Procedures for Complex Congenital Cardiac Lesions. The Heart Surgery Forum, 12(3), E155-E157. https://doi.org/10.1532/HSF98.20091044