Factors Influencing the Results of Double-Valve Surgery in Patients with Fulminant Endocarditis: The Importance of Valve Selection
Background: Extension of infection below the aortic valve is a serious complication, especially with mitral valve involvement. Mortality is substantial and reinfection can strongly influence outcome.
Patients: Of 327 surgical patients with active infective aortic valve endocarditis admitted to the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin for surgical treatment between December 1996 and December 2003, 108 had root abscess, and 53 (25.5%) had diagnoses of secondary infective mitral valve disease (SMVD). The mean age ( ± SD) was 53 ± 14.2 years; there were 37 men and 16 women.
Methods: The secondary lesion on the mitral valve was classified as SMVD requiring double-valve surgery (DVS). This prospective clinical and echocardiographic study revealed 2 paths of infection extension into the mitral valve. In the DVS group, 38 patients (71.7%) had tissue metastatic lesions, and 15 patients (28.3%) had a jet lesion on the mitral valve. Most patients (42) with SMVD had an aortic ring abscess as the primary lesion.
Results: All patients with destructive endocarditic double-valve disease received aortic and mitral valve surgery. In 19 cases (35.8%), mitral valve reconstruction was undertaken; in 4 cases, mitral valve replacement had to be carried out after attempted mitral valve reconstruction. Concomitant mitral valve replacement because of severe damage to the valvular and subvalvular apparatus was performed in 30 patients (56.6%). Other types of surgery performed in 11 cases (20.8%) were 8 closures of a septic ventricular septal defect and 3 closures of a fistula to the right ventricle or right atrium. Twenty-seven patients were treated with a Shelhigh prosthesis, 18 were treated with double-valve replacement (both Shelhigh), and 9 were treated with an aortic Shelhigh prosthesis and concomitant mitral valve reconstruction. Homografts were used in 17 patients, with mitral valve reconstruction carried out in 10 patients and a stented mitral prosthesis in 7. In 9 cases, 2 stented valve prostheses were used. There were 14 early (60 days) deaths (26.4%). Septic shock, severe annular and subannular destruction, and poor left ventricular function (end-diastolic dimension >65 mm, ejection fraction <40%) were the significant risk factors determined in the multivariate analysis.
Function of Implants: Continuous and Color Doppler Investigation: Comparative studies of 2 different implants in the aortic position were performed late postoperatively (325 ± 251 days) for homografts and the Shelhigh stentless prosthesis. The calculated instantaneous (maximal Doppler) gradient and the mean pressure gradient through the aortic implants were 19 ± 10.4 mm Hg and 12 ± 5.7 mm Hg, respectively, for the homografts and 24 ± 8.4 mm Hg and 15 ± 4.6 mm Hg, respectively, for the Shelhigh stentless prosthesis (not significantly different for the 2 groups). There was no mitral or aortic valve dysfunction. A trivial paravalvular leakage in the mitral position in 1 patient and a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricular outflow tract without leakage or valvular dysfunction in another were diagnosed by postoperative Doppler investigation.
Conclusions: The mortality in patients with destructive endocarditis requiring DVS depends mostly on the patients' preoperative hemodynamic situation. The risk of reinfection can be minimized if valve substitutes are properly selected (homografts, Shelhigh No-React SuperStentless and No-React BioConduit in the aortic position, or Shelhigh BioMitral in the mitral position). Concomitant mitral valve reconstruction procedures do not increase the risk of mitral reinfection.
Abolhoda A, Yu S, Oyarzun JR, et al. 1996. No-React detoxification process: a superior anticalcification method for bioprostheses. Ann Thorac Surg 62:1724-30.nArnett EN, Roberts WC. 1976. Valve ring abscess in active infective endocarditis. Circulation 54:140-5.nBaumgartner FJ, Omari BO, Robertson JM, Nelson JR, Pandya A, Miliken JC. 2000. Annular abscess in surgical endocarditis: anatomic, clinical and operative features. Ann Thorac Surg 70:442-7.nBlumberg EA, Karalis DA, Chandrasekaran K, et al. 1995. Endocarditis associated paravalvular abscess: do clinical parameters predict presence of abscess? Chest 107:898-903.nCarrel TP, Berdat P, Engleberger L, et al. 2003. Aortic root replacement with a new stentless aortic valve xenograft conduit: preliminary hemodynamic and clinical results. J Heart Valve Dis 12:752-7.nDanchin N, Cherrier F. 1999. Comparison of long-term outcome in patients with or without aortic ring abscess treated surgically for aortic valve infective endocarditis. Heart 81:177-81.nDavid TE, Feindel CM, Armstrong S, Sun Z. 1996. Long-term results of operation for paravalvular abscess. Ann Thorac Surg 62:48-53.nDearani JA, Orszulak TA, Schaff HV, Daly RC, Anderson BJ, Danielson GK. 1997. Results of allograft aortic valve replacement for complex endocarditis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 113:287-91.nDelay D, Pellerin M, Carrier M, et al. 2000. Immediate and long-term results of valve replacement for native and prosthetic valve endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg 70:1219-23.nErgin MA, Raissi S, Follis F, Lansman SL, Griepp RB. 1989. Annular destruction in acute bacterial endocarditis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 97:755-63.nHetzer R, Deyerling W, Borst HG. 1984. Herzklappenchirurgie beiaktiver infektiöser Endokarditis. In: Infektiöser Endokarditis. Klinik, Diagnostik und Therapie. Darmstadt, Germany: Steinkopff-Verlag. p 148-76.nKirklin JK, Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD. 1988. Aortic valve endocarditis with aortic root abscess cavity: surgical treatment with aortic valve homograft. Ann Thorac Surg 45;674-7.nKnosalla C, Weng Y, Yankah AC, et al. 2000. Surgical treatment of active infective aortic valve endocarditis with associated periannular abscess: 13 year results. Eur Heart J 21:490-7.nMaisch B. 1989. Klinik der infektiösen Endokarditis. Internist (Berl) 30:483-91.nNetzer RO, Zollinger E, Seiler C, Cerny A. 2000. Infective endocarditis: clinical spectrum, presentation and outcome. An analysis of 212 cases< 1980-1995. Heart 84:25-30.nSheldon WH, Golden A. 1951. Abscesses of the valve rings of the heart: a frequent but not well recognized complication of acute bacterial endocarditis. Circulation 4:1-12.nSiniawski H, Lehmkuhl H, Weng Y, et al. 2003. Stentless aortic valves as an alternative to homografts for valve replacement in active infective endocarditis complicated by ring abscess. Ann Thorac Surg 75:803-8.n
How to Cite
Author Disclosure & Copyright Transfer Agreement
In order to publish the original work of another person(s), The Heart Surgery Forum® must receive an acknowledgment of the Author Agreement and Copyright Transfer Statement transferring to Forum Multimedia Publishing, L.L.C., a subsidiary of Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. the exclusive rights to print and distribute the author(s) work in all media forms. Failure to check Copyright Transfer agreement box below will delay publication of the manuscript.
A current form follows:
The author(s) hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership of the manuscript submitted to Forum Multimedia Publishing, LLC (Publisher). The copyright transfer covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article and the material contained therein throughout the world in all languages and in all media of expression now known or later developed, including but not limited to reprints, photographic reproduction, microfilm, electronic data processing (including programming, storage, and transmission to other electronic data record(s), or any other reproductions of similar nature), and translations.
However, Publisher grants back to the author(s) the following:
- The right to make and distribute copies of all or part of this work for use of the author(s) in teaching;
- The right to use, after publication in The Heart Surgery Forum, all or part of the material from this work in a book by the author(s), or in a collection of work by the author(s);
- The royalty-free right to make copies of this work for internal distribution within the institution/company that employs the author(s) subject to the provisions below for a work-made-for-hire;
- The right to use figures and tables from this work, and up to 250 words of text, for any purpose;
- The right to make oral presentations of material from this work.
Publisher reserves the right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. To republish, such third parties must obtain written permission from the Publisher. (This is in accordance with the Copyright Statute, United States Code, Title 17. Exception: If all authors were bona fide officers or employees of the U.S. Government at the time the paper was prepared, the work is a “work of the US Government” (prepared by an officer or employee of the US Government as part of official duties), and therefore is not subject to US copyright; such exception should be indicated on signature lines. If this work was prepared under US Government contract or grant, the US Government may reproduce, royalty-free, all or portions of this work and may authorize others to do so, for official US Government purposes only, if the US Government contract or grant so requires.
I have participated in the conception and design of this work and in the writing of the manuscript and take public responsibility for it. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been published, has been submitted for publication elsewhere, or will be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by The Heart Surgery Forum, except as described in an attachment. I have reviewed this manuscript (original version) and approve its submission. If I am listed above as corresponding author, I will provide all authors with information regarding this manuscript and will obtain their approval before submitting any revision. I attest to the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of the content of the manuscript and understand that Publisher assumes no responsibility for the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of its content. I warrant that this manuscript is original with me and that I have full power to make this Agreement. I warrant that it contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful or that invades individual privacy or infringes any copyright or other proprietary right. I agree to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless of and from any claim made against Publisher that relates to or arises out of the publication of the manuscript and agree that this indemnification shall include payment of all costs and expenses relating to the defense of any such claim, including all reasonable attorney’s fees.
I warrant that I have no financial interest in the drugs, devices, or procedures described in the manuscript (except as disclosed in the attached statement).
I state that the institutional Human Subjects Committee and/or the Ethics Committee approved the clinical protocol reported in this manuscript for the use of experimental techniques, drugs, or devices in human subjects and appropriate informed consent documents were utilized.
Furthermore, I state that any and all animals used for experimental purposes received humane care in USDA registered facilities in compliance with the “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” formulated by the National Society for Medical Research and the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1985).