Surgical Treatment of Left Ventricular Aneurysms: A Comparison of Long-term Follow-up of Left Ventricular Function for Classic Aneurysmectomy and Endoaneurysmorrhaphy Techniques
Objective: Myocardial infarction may be complicated by the formation of a left ventricular (LV) aneurysm that distorts the normal elliptical geometry of the ventricle to produce a dilated spherical ventricle with limited contractile and filling capacities. One of the consequences is congestive heart failure, which may be refractory to medical therapy and require surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV function in the late term following repair of LV aneurysm.
Methods: Ninety-seven patients underwent repair of postinfarctional LV aneurysms. Sixty-one patients (62.9%) underwent classic aneurysmectomy, and 36 patients (37.1%) had endoaneurysmorrhaphy. The mean age (±SD) of the 87 men (89.7%) and 10 women was 55.98 ± 8.59 years. Coronary surgery was performed in 82 patients (84.5%), with a mean of 1.34 ± 0.77 grafts/patient. The mean preoperative ejection fraction (EF) was 39.74% ± 8.79% (classic, 39.92% ± 8.90%; endoaneurysmorrhaphy, 39.43% ± 8.61%; difference not statistically significant [NS]). Fifty-five patients (56.7%) had angina of Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III to IV (classic, 55.7%; endoaneurysmorrhaphy, 58.3%; NS), 31 patients (31.9%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III to IV (classic, 31.1%; endoaneurysmorrhaphy, 33.3%; NS), and the mean preoperative NYHA functional class was 2.88 ± 0.74 (classic, 2.83 ± 0.77; endoaneurysmorrhaphy, 2.97 ± 0.71; NS).
Results: The mortality rate at <30 days was 9.8% (n = 6) in the classic aneurysmectomy group and 2.7% (n = 1) in the endoaneurysmorrhaphy group. Long-term follow-up was available for 80 of these patients. During a mean follow-up of 79.3 ± 37.6 months (range, 6-156 months), 14 patients (17.5%) died of a cardiac-related cause (classic, 8 patients [16.6%]; endoaneurysmorrhaphy, 6 patients [18.7%]; NS). The cardiac-related survival rate was 82.5%. In the first year, at 5 years, and at 10 years, the survival rates of the patients who underwent classical aneurysmectomy were 98.8%, 93.5%, and 76.1%, respectively, and the rates for patients who underwent endoaneurysmorrhaphy were 100%, 93.0%, 71.2%, respectively (P = .2). In the follow-up patient population, the mean preoperative EF was 40.21% ± 9.44% in the classic aneurysmectomy group and 39.34% ± 8.61% in the endoaneurysmorrhaphy group. Postoperatively, mean EFs increased to 44.24% ± 9.50% and 43.80% ± 8.81%, respectively, at the last follow-up. NYHA functional class changed from 2.79 ± 0.77 preoperatively to 1.60 ± 0.73 postoperatively in the classic aneurysmectomy group and from 2.97 ± 0.71 preoperatively to 1.34 ± 0.54 postoperatively in the endoaneurysmorrhaphy group. There was no significant difference in hospital readmissions for cardiac causes (classic, 27.1%; endoaneurysmorrhaphy, 31.2%).
Conclusion: LV aneurysm can be repaired with acceptable surgical risk. Surgical treatment of LV aneurysm is associated with an improvement in long-term survival and symptoms.
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