Epicardial Posterior Papillary Muscle Repositioning with Mitral Annular Reduction for FIMR Treatment: Initial Ex Vivo Heart Model Study
Background: High recurrent functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR) has been observed after annuloplasty. Since annuloplasty alone could not prevent late recurrent FIMR or improve the survival rate after CABG, adjunctive subvalvular opt for better treatment tailored for each individual patient.
Methods: Ex vivo ovine heart models with annular dilatation and PPM displacement were used for analysis of mitral regurgitation (MR) flow, left ventricular and annular geometry after treatment by mitral annular reduction alone (MA, nMA = 12) or combined with epicardial PPM repositioning (MA+PPM, nMA+PPM=13).
Results: MR significantly was reduced from baseline in both the MA (P = .03) and MA+PPM (P = .02) groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. The septo-lateral mitral annular distance decreased after applying both methods (MA group P = .005; MA+PPM group P = .05). The tethering α angle of the APM in the frontal plane significantly increased from baseline in the MA+PPM group (P = .027). Furthermore, the MA+PPM group had a larger APM and PPM α angle in the frontal plane compared with the MA group after reducing the MR (P = .04). There were no statistically significant changes in tethering angles found in the MA group compared with baseline. MR reduction correlated with percentage decrease of septo-lateral mitral annular distance (rs = 0.51, P = .01), the percentage decrease of fibrosa-PPM distance (rs = 0.43, P = .03), and the percentage increase of the PPM anterior displacement (rs = -0.41, P = .04).
Conclusion: The decreased tethered angle of the PPM referred to the annulus, and the decreased interpapillary muscles distance suggested the PPM was repositioned inward and toward the septal annulus by the epicardial pushing pad.
Epicardial repositioning of the PPM adjunct with mitral annular reduction facilitated leaflet coaptation without the risk of overlying restriction of the mitral annular orifice.
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