Concomitant Persistent Atelectasis following TEVAR Due to a Descending Aortic Aneurysm: Hybrid Endovascular Repair and ECMO Therapy
AbstractMany thoracic aortic aneurysms are discovered incidentally, and most develop without symptoms. Symptoms are usually due to sudden expansion of the aneurysm, which can cause a vague pain in the back, or sometimes a sharp pain that may denote the presence of impending rupture. Other symptoms are related to pressure on adjacent structures, such as pressure on the bronchus that can cause respiratory distress, or pressure on the laryngeal nerve causing vocal hoarseness. Pressure on the esophagus can cause difficulty in swallowing.
Currently, open surgery and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) are the choices of treatment for descending thoracic aneurysms (DTA). The decision to intervene on a DTA depends on its size, location, rate of growth and symptoms, and the overall medical condition of the patient. The indications for TEVAR should not differ from those for open surgery and typically include aneurysms larger than 6 cm in diameter. Saccular and symptomatic aneurysms are often repaired at a smaller size. It is also suggested that aneurysms with a growth rate more than 1 cm per year, or
0.5 cm in 6 months should be considered for early repair.
Despite the close proximity of the aorta and left main bronchus, atelectasis caused by thoracic aortic aneurysms is rare. We review the case report of a patient with concomitant persistent left pulmonary atelectasis causing acute respiratory distress due to complete compression of the left main bronchus after TEVAR of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm.
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